1.0 Foundational Knowledge
Candidates have knowledge of the literacy processes and know how to apply the results of evidence-based literacy research (qualitative and quantitative) to instructional practices. Literacy is defined as:
- The integration of listening, speaking, reading, writing and critical thinking across all media types
- The knowledge to recognize and use language appropriate to a situation
- The ability to think, create, question, solve problems and reflect
1.A Demonstrate knowledge of the major theories of first and additional language acquisition and development and learning in the teaching of reading, writing, oral language, critical thinking, comprehension, and habits of mind.
1.A.1 Demonstrate knowledge that reading and writing are developmental processes.
1.A.2 Demonstrate knowledge of the foundations of phonology, morphology, semantics, syntax, pragmatics, and orthography.
1.A.3 Demonstrate knowledge of qualitative and quantitative reading research, the history of the teaching of reading, and best practices of reading instruction.
1.A.4 Demonstrate knowledge of the interrelationships of reading and writing, and listening and speaking.
1.A.5 Demonstrate knowledge of the role of meta-cognition in reading and writing, and listening and speaking.
1.B Demonstrate knowledge of the essential components of reading (phonics, word recognition, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension).phonological awareness, print concepts, and academic language.
1.B.1 Know the instructional progression of concepts of print [e.g., holding a book, understanding that print carries meaning, directionality, tracking of print, letter representation, word, and sentence].
1.B.2 Demonstrate knowledge of phonemic awareness [e. g., segmentation, blending, substitution].
1.B.3 Demonstrate knowledge of phonics [e. g., sound symbol correspondence, blending, and word families].
1.B.4 Demonstrate knowledge of fluency [e. g., rate, accuracy, prosody].
1.B.5 Demonstrate knowledge of indirect and direct vocabulary instruction [e. g., specific word instruction and word-learning strategies, using resources, word parts, and context clues].
1.B.6 Demonstrate knowledge of comprehension skills and strategies [e. g., monitoring, summarizing, generating and answering questions].
1.B.7 Explain how additional components of literacy are inextricably linked to the reading process (oral language, spelling and writing).
1.B.8 Demonstrate knowledge of literary terminology and concepts [e.g., identify main idea, genre, text features, inference, foreshadowing, author’s purpose, fact v. opinion].
1.C Demonstrate knowledge of various factors that affect language development and reading acquisition [e. g., cultural, environmental, linguistic, physical, social].
1.C.1 Demonstrate knowledge of the interrelationship between first and second language and literacy acquisition.
1.C.2 Demonstrate knowledge of how culture, language, dialect, and ethnic diversity among learners can positively influence literacy development.
1.C.3 Demonstrate knowledge of the importance of including families as partners in the literacy development of their children.
1.D Know how to use the Common Core State Standards to guide instruction.
1.E Demonstrate and model speech in a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, showing command of standard English when indicated or appropriate.
1.F Demonstrate knowledge of determining level of text complexity.
2.0 Assessment, Diagnosis, and Evaluation
Candidates demonstrate knowledge of the assessment/instruction cycle (data analysis, universal screening, diagnostic, progress monitoring, formative, summative), and how to use a variety of assessment tools and practices to plan and evaluate evidence-based literacy instruction.
2.A Demonstrate knowledge of selecting assessment tools to match the instructional purpose.
2.B Demonstrate knowledge of interpreting assessment results to inform instruction, prevention, and intervention.
2.C Demonstrate knowledge of providing students with the opportunity to self-evaluate, set goals for improvement, and monitor own progress.
3.0 Instructional Strategies and Resources
Candidates have knowledge of a wide range of instructional practices, approaches, methods, and curriculum materials to support literacy instruction.
3.A Demonstrate knowledge of a wide-range of instructional strategies.
3.A.1 Demonstrate knowledge of a wide range of research-based instructional practices, approaches, and methods, including technology-based practices, for learners at differing stages of development and from differing cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
3.A.2 Demonstrate knowledge of a wide range of strategies used to comprehend, analyze, interpret, and evaluate a variety of literary and expository texts [e. g., demonstrate an understanding of how elements such as tone, bias, and point of view influence the meaning of text].
3.A.3 Demonstrate knowledge of instructional grouping options [e. g., individual, small group, whole class, differentiated, peer tutoring, computer based] as appropriate for reading instruction.
3.A.4 Demonstrate knowledge of the contextual factors in schools that influence student learning and reading [e.g., grouping procedures, school programs, and assessment].
3.B Demonstrate knowledge of how to select and use a wide-range of curricular materials, and strategically implement effective literacy instruction for all learners.
3.B.1 Demonstrate knowledge of a wide range of curriculum materials to ensure effective reading instruction, focused on comprehension and meaning, for learners at different stages of reading and writing development and from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
3.B.2 Explain how to select and adapt classroom-based literacy instructional materials, including technology-based materials.
3.B.3 Demonstrate knowledge that material selection criteria should be informed by research and must accommodate the developmental, cultural, and linguistic differences of learners.
3.B.4 Demonstrate knowledge of the range of genre in classic and contemporary children’s and young adult literature.
3.B.5 Demonstrate knowledge of the purpose and use of various text types [e.g., decodable, predictable, easy reader].
3.B.6 Explain independent, instructional, and frustrational levels of reading.
3.B.7 Demonstrate knowledge of scaffolding comprehension strategies for managing increasingly complex texts.
3.B.8 Select print, non-print, and technology-based information representing multiple levels, broad interests, and cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
3.C Demonstrate knowledge of how to plan systematic, explicit instruction for the foundational, comprehension, and composition components of reading and writing. This includes knowledge and use of appropriate materials and explicit, personalized instruction based upon the assessed needs of each student.
3.D Demonstrate how to model and explicitly teach students to use word identification, word meaning, and context clues to read for meaning.
3.E Demonstrate how to plan systematic instruction to support students in developing key ideas and details, craft and structure, integration of knowledge and ideas.
3.F Demonstrate ability to give and receive appropriate and timely feedback to students to shape instruction.
3.F.1 Feedback should be goal referenced, tangible, transparent, actionable, user-friendly, on-going, and consistent.
4.0 Creating a Literate Environment
Candidates foster literacy development by using instructional practices, curriculum materials and the appropriate use of assessments to create a literate environment.
4.A Demonstrate knowledge that students’ interests, literacy skills, and funds of knowledge are always considered and integrated.
4.B Demonstrate understanding that creating a literate environment includes literary and informational texts that foster interest and growth in all aspects of literacy including student choice in selection of reading materials.
4.C Demonstrate understanding of the evidence that grounds practice in creating a literate environment.
4.D Demonstrate knowledge of the need for a variety of instructional materials and reference sources [e.g. large supply of books, technology-based information, and non-print materials representing multiple levels, broad interests, and cultural and linguistic backgrounds.]
4.E Demonstrate knowledge of selecting and adapting a variety of print, non-print, and classroom-based instructional materials for literacy, including those that are technology- based and are appropriate to the developmental needs of the student.
4.F Demonstrate knowledge of the various ways to use text forms and features to teach reading [e.g., conventions of written English, text structure and genres, figurative language, and textual links].
4.G Demonstrate and accurately explain Gradual Release of Responsibility (GRR) to develop independent literate learners.
4.H Demonstrate ability to engage and collaborate with caregivers regarding students’ literacy development.
4.I Model literacy to encourage students to be lifelong literate citizens.
5.0 Professional Development
Candidates view professional development as a career-long effort and responsibility.
5.A Understand the importance of respecting socio-economic, cultural, linguistic, and ethnic diversity in the teaching process.
5.B Understand the importance of keeping current in the knowledge of the field of literacy [e.g., reading professional journals and publications, data analysis and assessment, participating in professional organizations, conferences, professional book studies, apply research (qualitative and quantitative) to instructional practices].
5.C Exhibit collaborative and collegial practices that focus on improvement of student learning through observation and discussion.
6.0 Instructional Methodology
Candidates demonstrate a deep understanding of the pedagogical knowledge and practice specific to the teaching of literacy.
6.A Demonstrate how to apply the results of evidence-based literacy research (qualitative and quantitative) to instructional practices
6.B Use a wide range of assessment tools and practices that range from individual and group standardized tests to individual and group informal classroom assessment strategies, including technology-based assessment tools appropriate to the students.
6.C Select appropriate materials and demonstrate the ability to plan and implement effective literacy instruction for all learners based on the Common Core State Standards and the needs of the students.
6.D Provide students with ample opportunity to become independent learners and to self-advocate.