1. Knowledge and Skills
1.A Candidates demonstrate knowledge and application of concepts, theories, and research from applied linguistics, second language acquisition, and literacy development.
1.B Candidates can explain how students’ first language proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing transfers to and supports English language acquisition.
1.C Candidates demonstrate knowledge and pedagogical application of linguistic aspects of the English language including:
- phonology (the sound system)
- morphology (word formation)
- syntax (phrase and sentence structure)
- semantics (meaning)
- pragmatics (context and function)
- discourse within and across contexts
1.D Candidates can explain interrelationships and features of social, school/instructional, and academic discourses and pedagogical implications.
1.E Candidates can explain the interrelationships between the language domains (i.e., listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing) and the Washington State’s approved English Language Development student learning standards.
1.F Candidates know, understand, and apply Washington State’s approved English Language Proficiency Standards.
2 Culture and Equity
2.A Candidates are knowledgeable about the interrelationship between language and culture and its effects on teaching and learning.
2.B Candidates can demonstrate knowledge and application of strategies which incorporate cultural and linguistic diversity to ensure equity in teaching and learning.
2.C Candidates understand the diversity within the English language learner population (e.g., immigrant, migrant, refugee, and those born in the United States) and the impact of immigration status, socioeconomic status, race, religion, class, national origin, disability, and gender on student learning.
2.D Candidates can recognize and acknowledge the contributions of diverse cultural groups to our local, national, and global societies.
2.E Candidates recognize potential linguistic and cultural biases of pedagogies, curricula, and assessment instruments when determining classroom practices for the English language learner.
2.F Candidates can explain the complexities involved in cultural identity including the influences of:
- Cultural pluralism
- The potential impact on student learning and identity development.
2.G Candidates are able to articulate the benefits of and need for an additive perspective of language and culture that supports bi/multicultural identity development
2.H Candidates can explain how her/his own ethnicity, culture, and socioeconomic status influence teaching practices.
3. Professional Leadership & Advocacy
3.A Candidates demonstrate knowledge of relevant historical and current legal and social issues concerning the education of English language learners in the State of Washington and the United States.
3.B Candidates know how to serve as effective resources (e.g., instructional strategies, policy and outreach) for working with English language learners and the importance of collaborating with other educational staff and community members.
3.C Candidates understand how to advocate for English language learners within the local school and community contexts by challenging: misconceptions, arbitrary requirements, inappropriate curricular and assessment assumptions, cultural misunderstandings, and other factors that may impede language learners’ development and access to opportunities.
3.D Candidates can distinguish between and communicate characteristics of typical language development (including consideration of cultural influences on learning behaviors), and potential special education needs by referencing appropriate research and resources.
3.E Candidates can recognize characteristics of English language learners who potentially qualify for highly capable programs, including consideration of cultural influences on learning behaviors.
3.F Candidates can explain the features, benefits, and challenges of various models including dual language (two-way and one-way), early and late exit bilingual programs, sheltered instruction, content-based instruction, push in, pull-out, and newcomer.
3.G Candidates can analyze how policies (e.g., discipline systems, ELL identification, programing, ELL placement, extracurricular eligibility) may impact the school experiences of ELLs.
3.H Candidates collaborate with stakeholders (e.g., teachers, administrators, other educational staff, families, and community partners) to support and facilitate English language development and overall academic success for English language learners.
3.I Candidates advocate for ELLs and their families in multiple contexts within the school and communities.
4 Planning, Instruction and Assessment
Planning, Instruction, and Assessment
4.B Candidates apply knowledge of linguistics (e.g., phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, discourse across contexts) to support language development in all language domains (listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing).
4.C Candidates differentiate instruction and assessment by applying concepts, theories, and research of educational linguistics, second language acquisition, and literacy development.
4.D Candidates consistently engage in culturally responsive practices that empower students intellectually, socially, emotionally, and politically to develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes. These practices may include:
- Use resources and assets available in schools (e.g., parent advisory committees, adult reading programs) and English learners’ cultural communities (e.g., online, local, and regional resources).
- Acknowledge that parenting practices and participation in the education of a child vary among cultures and accommodate for this variance by developing diverse opportunities for parental outreach and integrating families within the school community.
- Validate and incorporate home languages and cultures as educational assets
- Facilitate/Bridge understanding of expectations and processes in the new culture to empower ELLs to excel socially and academically.
- Use information, if available, of native language literacy and demonstrated knowledge of content to inform instructional choices.
- Integrate students’ funds of knowledge to build bridges to content understanding.
- Include multiple cultures and integrate culturally-relevant texts in discipline- specific instruction.
4.E Candidates plan, differentiate, and use materials, for multiple language proficiency levels ensuring meaningful access to grade-level content for each student.
4.F Candidates plan and support English language learners’ authentic engagement and interaction in a variety of learning environments (e.g., whole group, cooperative groups, independent learning, and individualized instruction).
4.G Candidates apply a range of teaching strategies, structures, and methods to support the development of higher level thinking skills at all levels of language proficiency.
4.H Candidates apply a range of teaching strategies, structures, and methods to elicit student voice (e.g., including reflection related to learning targets, metacognition strategies, and effective use of resources) and engagement at all levels of language proficiency.
4.I Candidates employ a variety of materials for language learning including books, visual aids, props, realia, software, internet resources, native language resources and technological resources to enhance language and content-area knowledge.
4.J Candidates develop instructional plans and assessments to support ELLs’ language development across language domains and within disciplines.
4.K Candidates consistently reflect upon and analyze the classroom, school, and community experiences of ELLs and how such experiences influence the education of culturally and linguistically diverse populations.
4.L Candidates identify and describe principles, instruments, and methods of reliable and valid assessment related to the education of English language learners.
4.M Candidates recognize linguistic and cultural biases within assessment instruments (e.g., formative, summative, and standardized) and, when possible, implements appropriate modifications and accommodations.
4.N Candidates apply a variety of assessment tools and methods (e.g., formative, summative, and standardized) appropriate for English language learners to inform instruction, facilitate appropriate placement, and monitor language development and academic progress.
4.O Candidates appropriately use data from a variety of language proficiency instruments and discipline-specific assessments (e.g., formative, summative, and standardized) to inform instruction.