### 1.0 Knowledge of Academic Content.

Candidates understand and apply knowledge of the arts, English language arts, health-fitness, mathematics, science, and social studies.

1.A The Arts (dance, music, theater, visual arts).

1.A.1 Understand that dance, music, theatre, and visual arts shape and reflect culture and history.

1.A.2 Understand the value of and apply basic arts knowledge, elements, and skills used in dance, music, theatre, and visual arts, such as rhythm, beat, expression, character, energy, color, balance, and harmony.

1.A.3 Recognize a broad variety of visual and performing arts styles that differ across various artists, cultures, and times.

1.A.4 Understand and apply/demonstrate thinking skills using the artistic processes of creating, performing, and responding.

1.A.5 Understand that dance, music, theatre, and visual arts are used to communicate ideas and feelings for a variety of purposes and audiences.

1.A.6 Understand that aesthetic diversity is reflected in dance, music, theatre, and visual arts.

1.A.7 Understand that the arts (dance, music, theatre, and visual arts) make connections within and across the arts, to other disciplines, life, cultures, and work.

1.A.8 Understand the value of seeking and accessing dance, music, theatre, and visual arts specialists in the school, district, community, or region.

1.A.9 Understand how learning in and through the arts supports the development of 21st Century Skills such as creativity, communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and Habits of Mind such as persistence, observation, and reflection, and how these capacities support success in and out of school.

1.A.10 Understand how learning in and through the arts supports academic and social/emotional learning for all students, by providing multiple pathways to learning concepts and demonstrating understanding across all subject areas, and by helping students to make deeper and more personally meaningful connections to learning.

1.B English Language Arts.

1.B.1 Knowledge and Understanding of the English Language, language development, and its diversity. Candidates know and understand the English Language. They are able to read, write, speak, listen, and visually represent.

1.B.1.A Understand how to integrate reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing, and thinking

1.B.1.B Understand the grammar of Standard American English including semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology

1.B.1.C Understanding the fundamentals of first and second language acquisition and development and that the linguistic/rhetorical patterns of other languages affect the written and oral expression of diverse learners

1.B.1.D Understand diversity in language use, e.g., grammar, patterns, and dialects across cultures, ethnic groups, geographic regions, gender, and social roles, and how that can affect student learning

1.B.2 Knowledge and Understanding of Reading processes. Candidates know and understand the processes, purposes, and practical aspects of teaching reading.

1.B.2.A Demonstrate knowledge that reading and writing are developmental processes

1.B.2.B Demonstrate knowledge of the interrelationships and the role of meta-cognition of reading and writing, and listening and speaking

1.B.2.C Demonstrate knowledge of the essential components of reading (phonics, word recognition, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension)

1.B.2.D Know the instructional progression of concepts of print [e.g., holding a book, understanding that print carries meaning, directionality, tracking of print, letter representation, word, and sentence]
1.B.2.E Demonstrate knowledge of phonemic awareness [e. g., segmentation, blending, substitution]; phonics [e. g., sound symbol correspondence, blending, and word families];fluency [e. g., rate, accuracy, prosody]; indirect and direct vocabulary instruction [e. g., specific word instruction and word-learning strategies, using resources, word parts, and context clues]; comprehension skills and strategies [e. g., monitoring, summarizing, generating and answering questions]
1.B.2.F Explain how additional components of literacy are inextricably linked to the reading process (oral language, spelling and writing)

1.B.2.G Demonstrate knowledge of the interrelationship between first and second language and literacy acquisition

1.B.2.H Understand and construct meaning from wide variety of culturally relevant literary and expository text including fiction, non-fiction, poetry, and drama.

1.B.2.I Understand and articulate a wide range of strategies used to comprehend, analyze, interpret, and evaluate a wide variety of literary and expository texts (e.g. demonstrate an understanding of how elements such as tone, bias, and point of view influence the meaning of text)

1.B.2.J Demonstrate knowledge of selecting reading assessment tools to match the instructional purpose

1.B.2.K Demonstrate how to use a wide range of reading assessment tools and practices that range from individual and group standardized tests to individual and group informal classroom assessment strategies, including technology-based assessment tools

1.B.2.L Demonstrate understanding of the reasons for using a wide range of assessment tools and practices [e.g., individual and group standardized tests, individual and group informal classroom assessments, and technology-based tools]
1.B.2.M Demonstrate understanding of interpreting assessment results to inform instruction based on assessment data, identify students’ proficiencies and difficulties

1.B.2.N Demonstrate understanding of the variability in reading levels among children in the same grade and within a child across the essential components of reading

1.B.2.O Demonstrate understanding of instructional interventions for individuals and flexible groups

1.B.2.P Understand how to interpret assessment data to plan and revise effective instruction that meets the needs of all students, including those at different developmental stages and those from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds

1.B.3 Knowledge and Understanding of Writing processes. Candidates know and understand the processes, purposes, and practical aspects of teaching writing.

1.B.3.A Understand the writing process, its components (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, publishing), and its recursive, interactive, and collaborative nature

1.B.3.B Understand the traits of effective writing (e.g. development of ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence structure, and conventions)

1.B.3.C Understand how purpose, audience, and perspective shape writing

1.B.3.D Understand how mode (expository, persuasive, and narrative) and form (such as research paper, editorial, memoir) shape writing

1.B.3.E Understand strategies for writing including finding, selecting, and refining topics for research projects; locating, working with, and documenting reliable sources for research projects; paraphrasing, summarizing, quoting sources, citing, and acknowledging sources in a text; using various technologies, including the internet

1.B.4 Knowledge and Understanding of Literature form. Candidates know and understand an extensive range of literary forms.

1.B.4.A Read and understand a broad range of texts (nonfiction and fiction, historical and contemporary), including works representing and authored by a range of cultures and ethnicities globally and within the United States; works written specifically for children and young adult readers; and works providing both male and female representation and authorship

1.B.4.B Understand the elements of literature (e.g. character, plot, setting)

1.B.4.C Understand the need to include historical context in the teaching of literature

1.B.4.D Understand that elements of genre influence comprehension of text

1.B.5 Knowledge and understanding of Communication. Candidates know and understand the processes, purposes, and practical aspects of teaching communication.

1.B.5.A Analyze the influence of media on culture and on people’s actions and communication

1.B.5.B Understand the characteristics and components of effective speaking and strategies for communicating effectively in large and small groups.

1.B.5.C Understand individual, social, and cultural factors that influence interpersonal communication, such as internal and external noise and perceptions of self and others

1.C Health and Fitness.

1.C.1 Demonstrate general understanding of how learners grow and develop kinesthetically.

1.C.1.A Understand basic motor learning development and progressions.

1.C.2 Demonstrate general understanding of basic motor skills, rhythms, physical activities, and physical fitness.

1.C.2.A Demonstrate general knowledge of the relationship of motor activity to neurological development.

1.C.2.B Demonstrate basic awareness of sensory needs, appropriate integration, and modifications as needed.

1.C.2.C Apply appropriate instructional cues, prompts, and feedback to facilitate the development of basic motor skills, rhythms, physical activities, and physical fitness.

1.C.3 Understand the effects of health and fitness choices and habits on quality of life.

1.C.3.A Demonstrate basic understanding of the relationship of nutrition to cognitive, physical, and emotional well-being.

1.C.3.B Demonstrate general knowledge of the prevention and management of common illnesses, diseases, and injuries.

1.C.4 Demonstrate basic understanding of safety, legal issues, and risk management related to instructional practice in health and fitness.

1.C.4.A Prepare a safe environment to enhance physical and emotional health in the physical education setting.

1.C.5 Demonstrate understanding of cultural competence in a comprehensive health and fitness education program.

1.C.6 Demonstrate general understanding of the implications for movement, health and fitness instruction, and development of healthy habits of physical, cognitive, and perceptual exceptionalities.

1.C.6.A Demonstrate ability to access resources for adapting curriculum to individual student needs such as addressing various developmentally appropriate motor skills.

1.C.6.B Demonstrate ability to access resources for adapting instruction to the setting such as classroom, gymnasium, and playground.

1.C.7 Demonstrate basic knowledge of current trends in technology in the classroom setting (e.g., pedometers, heart-rate monitors, apps, and active gaming trends).

1.C.8 Demonstrate a basic understanding of the Washington Health and Fitness State Learning Standards.

1.C.8.A Understand strategies to connect Common Core State Standards into health and fitness.

1.C.8.B Understand assessments and resources available on the OSPI health and fitness web site.

1.D Mathematics.

Candidates possess a deep understanding of development and mathematical and spatial learning from early childhood through adolescence.

1.D.1 Understand the developmental progression of mathematical learning including, spatial perception, recognition of shapes, visual matching, counting, knowledge of numbers, visual recognition of numbers, ordering, sorting, and classifying, creation of two- and three-dimensional objects, creating and expanding patterns, spatial rotation and number sense.

1.D.2 Understand and apply the fundamental principles, concepts, and procedures related to mathematical problem solving, exploration, and reasoning, including processes and skills related to using mathematical language to communicate relationships and concepts, adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, procedural fluency, and productive disposition.

1.D.3 Standards for Mathematical Practices: Demonstrate ability to embed CCSS-M Mathematical Practices in the instructional process to deepen conceptual understanding.

1.D.3.A Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

1.D.3.B Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

1.D.3.C Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

1.D.3.D Model with mathematics.

1.D.3.E Use appropriate tools strategically.

1.D.3.F Attend to precision.

1.D.3.G Look for and make use of structure.

1.D.3.H Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

1.D.4 Counting and Cardinality / Number and Operations in Base Ten & Fractions: Demonstrate a conceptual understanding of and procedural facility and application of operations, number systems, and properties.

1.D.4.A Demonstrate understanding of the progression of learning that begins with the base-ten number system, place value, and operations thereof, builds into understanding of and operations with fractions and rational numbers, and extends to understanding of and operations with real numbers.

1.D.4.B Understand and apply ratios, proportional thinking, and other methods for representing and solving mathematical and real world problems.

1.D.5 Number and Quantity: Understand the progression of learning that begins with the base-ten number system and operations thereof, builds into understanding of and operations with fractions and rational numbers, and extends to understanding of and operations with real numbers.

1.D.5.A Understand the characteristics of and relationships between different number systems including whole numbers, integers, rational, real, and complex numbers.

1.D.5.B Understand arithmetic operations of different number systems and their properties (integers, rational, and irrational numbers).

1.D.6 Operations and Algebraic Thinking / Algebra and Functions: Demonstrate a conceptual understanding of and procedural facility with algebra concepts emphasizing functions.

1.D.6.A Understand and apply properties of mathematical operations, strategies for computing and estimating solutions, and methods for modeling mathematical operations.

1.D.6.B Solve and graphically represent real life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions, equations, inequalities, and systems of equations and inequalities.

1.D.6.C Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations and use them to solve real world and mathematical problems.

1.D.6.D Use functional notation and interpret expressions for functions as they arise in terms of the situation they model (e.g., linear, quadratic, simple rational, and exponential).

1.D.6.E Understand operations on algebraic expressions and functions (e.g., polynomials, rationals, and roots).

1.D.6.F Apply arithmetic properties to algebraic expressions and equations.

1.D.6.G Write equations and inequalities in equivalent forms.

1.D.6.H Explain the interrelationship between the various representations of a function (e.g., graphs, tables, algebraic expressions, concrete models, and contexts).

1.D.7 Measurement and Data: Understand measurement systems and units, concepts related to geometric measurement, and tools and techniques used to solve measurement problems.

1.D.7.A Apply standard units of measurement and estimation.

1.D.7.B Understand processes and skills related to collecting, interpreting, and representing data.

1.D.8 Geometry: Demonstrate a conceptual understanding of geometric properties and relationships as they apply to congruence, similarity, geometric figures, and the Cartesian Coordinate System.

1.D.8.A Understand congruence in terms of rigid motion.

1.D.8.B Prove theorems involving triangle congruency and similarity.

1.D.8.C Apply transformations and use similarity and congruence in mathematical situations.

1.D.8.D Understand and perform geometric constructions physically and with technology.

1.D.8.E Understand the Pythagorean Theorem and apply it to problem solving situations.

1.D.8.F Solve real life and mathematical problems involving lines, angle measure, area, surface area, and volume.

1.D.8.G Classify, visualize, and describe two-dimensional figures and three-dimensional objects as well as the relationship among them.

1.D.8.H Apply geometric concepts to model real world situations.

1.D.9 Statistics and Probability: Demonstrate conceptual understanding and procedural facility of statistics and probability.

1.D.9.A Use appropriate measures of central tendency and distributions to summarize, represent, and interpret categorical and quantitative data.

1.D.9.B Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments and use random sampling to make inferences about whole populations.

1.D.9.C Understand and use the rules of probability to make predictions, evaluate decisions, and solve problems.

1.D.9.D Apply statistical and probability concepts to model real world situations.

1.D.10 Ratios and Proportional Relationships: Demonstrate conceptual understanding and procedural fluency in analyzing proportional relationships and solving real world mathematical problems.

1.D.10.A Describe and determine additive versus multiplicative perspectives.

1.D.10.B Reason and compute with ratios and the constant of proportionality (unit rate) to solve real world and mathematical problems.

1.D.10.C Recognize, describe, and represent equivalent ratios, rates, and proportional relationships.

1.D.10.D Represent and analyze proportional relationships using tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, concrete and mathematical models, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships.

1.D.10.E Compute the constant of proportionality (unit rate) associated with rational numbers.

1.D.10.F Recognize and connect proportional relationships to geometry, measurement, statistics, probability, and function.

1.D.10.G Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units.

1.D.10.H Apply ratio and proportion concepts to model real world situations.

1.D.11 Modeling and Technology: Connect mathematics with real life problems through the use of mathematical modeling and technology.

1.D.11.A Construct mathematical models in the content strands (e.g., look at a real life situation and transpose it into a mathematical problem, solve the problem, and interpret the solution in real life.)

1.D.11.B Use the appropriate technology available to explore conjectures, visualize, and analyze the mathematics, develop concepts and apply them to a context, and use technology to model in the real world.

1.D.12 Mathematics Instructional Methodology: Candidates possess a deep understanding of how students learn mathematics and of the pedagogical knowledge specific to mathematics teaching and learning.

1.D.12.A Select, use, and determine suitability of the available mathematics curricula, teaching materials, and other resources including manipulatives for the learning of mathematics for all students.

1.D.12.B Demonstrate ability to present mathematical concepts using multiple representations (e.g., numerical, graphical, analytical, and contextual).

1.D.12.C Demonstrate the ability to guide student discourse in mathematical problem solving, argumentation (creation and critiquing), literacy, and in-depth conceptual understanding.

1.D.12.D Demonstrate knowledge of learning progressions, including conceptual and procedural milestones and common misconceptions, within each content domain and connections to instruction.

1.D.12.D.1 Demonstrate knowledge of major, supporting, and additional clusters for each grade level.

1.D.12.D.2 Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of mathematical rigor including conceptual understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and application.

1.D.12.D.3 Demonstrate an understanding of coherent connections within clusters at a grade level and the progression from grade level to grade level that builds on previous learning.

1.D.12.E Engage in developmentally and culturally responsive teaching of mathematics that minimizes power and status issues, nurtures a positive mathematics disposition, and utilizes students’ cultural funds of knowledge and experiences as resources for lessons.

1.E Science.

The candidate works with their students to build the interrelationships among science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM), and society; by applying fundamental concepts related to Disciplinary Core Ideas (earth and space science, the life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering design); and promotes the scientific abilities of all children (Appendix D, All Standards, All Students (PDF)) as they acquire new knowledge through the use of Crosscutting Concepts and Science and Engineering Practices in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

1.E.1 Applies the developmental and social foundations of learning (K-8), specifically as they relate to science and engineering practices, mathematical thinking, and language.

1.E.2 Engage in instruction that integrates Disciplinary Core Ideas in Appendix E (PDF) with Crosscutting Concepts in Appendix G and Science and Engineering Practices in Appendix F (PDF) in the NGSS.

1.E.3 Know foundational science concepts and principles at a level that allows for the design and implementation of instruction that integrates Disciplinary Core Ideas with Crosscutting Concepts and Science and Engineering Practices.

1.E.3.A Physical Sciences.

1.E.3.A.1 Matter and its interactions.

1.E.3.A.2 Motion and stability: forces and interactions.

1.E.3.A.3 Energy.

1.E.3.A.4 Waves and their applications in technologies for information transfer.

1.E.3.B Life Sciences.

1.E.3.B.1 From molecules to organisms: structures and processes.

1.E.3.B.2 Ecosystems: interactions, energy, and dynamics.

1.E.3.B.3 Heredity: inheritance and variation of traits.

1.E.3.B.4 Biological evolution: unity and diversity.

1.E.3.C Earth and Space Sciences.

1.E.3.C.1 Earth’s place in the universe.

1.E.3.C.2 Earth’s systems.

1.E.3.C.3 Earth and human activity.

1.E.3.D Engineering, Technology, and Application of Science.

1.E.3.D.1 Engineering design.

1.E.3.D.2 Links among engineering, science, and technology.

1.E.4 Uses the Crosscutting Concepts as an organizational framework for connecting core ideas across the earth and space sciences, the life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering design.

1.E.4.A Patterns.

1.E.4.B Cause and effect.

1.E.4.C Scale, proportion, and quantity.

1.E.4.D Systems and systems models.

1.E.4.E Energy and matter; flows, cycles, and conservation.

1.E.4.F Structure and function.

1.E.4.G Stability and change.

1.E.5 Engage students in Science and Engineering Practices to facilitate learning the Disciplinary Core Ideas, Science and Engineering Practices, and Crosscutting Concepts.

1.E.5.A Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering).

1.E.5.B Developing and using models.

1.E.5.C Planning and carrying out investigations.

1.E.5.D Analyzing and interpreting data.

1.E.5.E Using mathematics and computational thinking.

1.E.5.F Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering).

1.E.5.G Engaging in argument from evidence.

1.E.5.H Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.

1.E.6 Understands and integrates the use of appropriate tools, including technological tools e.g., e-tools and interactive science notebooks.

1.E.7 Develops knowledge of and applies safety precautions and procedures relative to science investigations e.g., student eye protection, safe storage of chemicals, and equipment care and maintenance. Demonstrates responsible use and disposal of live organisms according to Washington State law.

1.E.8 Develops an understanding of how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines are interrelated to each other, society, the workplace, and the environment in Appendix J, Science, Technology, Society and the Environment (PDF); and how they promote equitable learning opportunities for all students in Appendix D, All Standards, All Students in the NGSS.

1.E.9 Knows and understands the interactions between culture and science, and the contributions of diverse individuals to the development of science and technology, and how science and technology have affected individuals, cultures, and societies throughout human history e.g., analysis of local, regional, national, and/or global environmental and resource issues in Appendix D, All Standards, All Students (PDF) and Appendix H, Nature of Science (PDF) in the NGSS.

1.F Social Studies.

1.F.1 Civics: Establish a framework for thoughtful participatory citizenship and civic decision-making by an understanding of government, law, and politics, including:

1.F.1.A key ideals and principles of the United States, including those in the Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and Bill of Rights

1.F.1.B the purposes, functions, and organization of governments and laws, such as local government (mayors, city councils, school boards) and how and why state, tribal, and federal governments make, interpret, and enforce rules and laws

1.F.1.C the rights and responsibilities of thoughtful participatory citizenship and civic involvement

1.F.1.D the nature, functions, and organization of neighborhoods and communities

1.F.2 Economics: Comprehend economic concepts and systems and the interactions among economy and individuals, households, businesses, governments, and societies, by understanding:

1.F.2.A the need to make choices among wants and needs and evaluate the outcomes of those choices, as embodied in concepts such as scarcity, decision-making, opportunity costs, factors, productive resource, values and beliefs

1.F.2.B supply and demand, prices, profits, incentives, specialization and trade and globalization

1.F.2.C how the government affects the economy through taxation

1.F.2.D the economic issues and problems that all societies face, such sustainability and the distribution of wealth

1.F.3 Geography: Comprehend how geographic features and human cultures shape and impact environments, including an understanding of:

1.F.3.A the physical characteristics, cultural characteristics and location of places and regions, including patterns of human settlements

1.F.3.B the use of maps/geographic tools, including Geographic Information Systems

1.F.3.C the interactions among humans, cultures, environments and global interdependence

1.F.4 History: Evaluate the role of historical events and themes and how they shape the present and future in the history of the Northwest, the United States, the world, and tribal, indigenous, and diverse cultures, including the ability to:

1.F.4.A understand historical chronology, with the capability to understand and create timelines to show how historical events are organized into time periods and eras

1.F.4.B analyze events in American, northwest, tribal/indigenous, and world history in terms of conflict and cooperation among individuals and groups; power, authority, and governance; the movements of people and encounters/mutual influence among cultures; the relationship between people and their environment; the influence of ideas, values and technology on historical events; the everyday experience of ordinary people; turning points; and cause and effect

1.F.4.C understand that there are multiple interpretations and perspectives about historical events

1.F.4.D use history to understand the present and plan for the future

1.F.5 Pedagogy to Operationalize the Social Studies and Promote Civic Behaviors: Exhibit necessary social studies-specific pedagogical skills, including the ability to:

1.F.5.A Demonstrate the skills to analyze social studies concepts for the developmental level of elementary students (e.g. making abstract concepts concrete, examples, use of students’ funds of knowledge)

1.F.5.B Facilitate a variety of classroom discussion formats

1.F.5.C Model and create classroom environments where students practice skills of inquiry by:

1.F.5.C.1 Listening to multiple perspectives

1.F.5.C.2 Developing questions and planning investigations

1.F.5.C.3 Applying disciplinary concepts and tools

1.F.5.C.4 Evaluating sources and using evidence

1.F.5.C.5 Communicating conclusions (stating a position supported by evidence)

1.F.5.C.6 Taking informed action (participating in and following a discussion)

1.F.5.D Employ decision-making processes used in a democratic society by:

1.F.5.D.1 Modeling, teaching, and leading student reflection on democratic decision-making processes

1.F.5.D.2 Teaching the variety of decision-making strategies used in governments and businesses

1.F.5.D.3 Engaging students in governance activities in the classroom and school

1.F.5.E Invite students into the process of civic engagement by:

1.F.5.E.1 Demonstrating a variety of community involvement skills to enhance social studies instruction

1.F.5.E.2 Involving students as active citizens in community;

1.F.5.E.3 Involving the community in civic engagement with students;

1.F.5.E.4 Integrating the resources of the community

1.F.5.F Access and develop classroom-based assessments including OSPI-developed CBAs to monitor and assess social studies content knowledge and civic behaviors

1.F.5.G Engage students in activities on global issues (e.g. sustainability, climate, conflict, economic patterns, global health, cause and effect, etc.)

### 2.0 Understanding of learners and their communities.

Candidates possess a deep understanding of the development and learning of children and young adolescents and how teachers can connect learning to students’ communities.

2.A Understand major concepts, theories, and research related to typical and atypical development of the whole child and young adolescent to include cognitive, social, emotional, linguistic, creative and physical development.

2.B Understand exceptionalities and special learning needs of students in order to:

2.B.1 Gain knowledge of the laws and terms governing students with special needs, and the implications for the classroom teacher

2.B.2 Collaboratively work with the student support team to assess and analyze student performance, design and implement the intervention, and report results of interventions

2.B.3 Utilize appropriate resources to investigate students’ special learning needs and identify appropriate instructional strategies

2.C Understand how home environment and community factors: cultural backgrounds, ethnicity, language development, socioeconomic status (SES), values about education, gender, and disabilities influence the learning of students

2.D Understand the needs of high-poverty and at-risk children and adolescents

### 3.0 Learning community.

Candidates establish classroom communities that foster student engagement, learning and positive relationships.

3.A Establish rapport with individual students that supports a personalized learning environment through respect and caring

3.B Create learning climate that encourages trust and mutual support among students.

3.C Build student capacity for self-confidence, self-advocacy, self-directed learning and decision-making

3.D Support full participation and engagement by all learners, including marginalized students

3.E Establish classroom norms and expectations with students that support a safe, positive learning climate for all.

3.F Manage student behavior fairly and equitably

3.G Establish effective and orderly classroom procedures, including use of classroom materials, transitions, and behavioral interventions

3.H Involve students’ families in the learning community by establishing effective two-way communication and designing appropriate and culturally responsive learning environments

### 4.0 Instruction.

Candidates use inquiry to effectively design and execute instructional plans and strategies that support diverse student learning within and across academic content areas.

4.A Design and implement learning activities that utilize research based practice and on-going reflection on instruction.

4.B Establish and communicate learning targets that:

4.B.1 are explicitly aligned with state and district standards.

4.B.2 represent meaningful learning, including fostering of student critical thinking and problem solving

4.B.3 are suitable for all students in the class and are adapted to the needs of individual students in order to ensure learner motivation and progress

4.B.4 are grounded in transformative multicultural knowledge, reasoning, performance skills, products, and dispositions

4.C Structure learning activities that enable students to achieve accurate and meaningful understanding of academic content and development of academic skills including:

4.C.1 acquiring information through reading, writing, listening, speaking and viewing.

4.C.2 locating, acquiring, and evaluating information from a variety of sources

4.C.3 conducting research, and deliberating, forming, and evaluating positions through the processes of reading, writing, speaking, viewing, and listening

4.C.4 constructing deeper and more meaningful understanding through the appropriate use of primary sources

4.C.5 developing in-depth conceptual understanding including the ability to develop/test generalizations and solve problems

4.D Structure learning activities that support the acquisition of state and district standards including:

4.D.1 Use of instructional grouping options (e.g., individual, small group, whole class, differentiated, peer tutoring) as appropriate for instruction

4.D.2 Use of a wide range of curriculum materials and teaching strategies to ensure effective instruction for learners at different stages of development and from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds.

4.E Models and supports inquiry and critical thinking through the skillful use of questioning

4.F Manage equipment, materials, and learning resources effectively and safely

4.G Effectively use technology to build understanding and skill and increase student capacity to use technology

4.H Pace instruction through the use of scaffolding and gradual release of responsibility

4.I Support the development of discussion skills by emphasizing and modeling the importance of evidence, multiple perspectives, active listening, and mutual respect.

### 5.0 Assessment.

Candidates, individually and/or collaboratively design and implement a wide range of assessment strategies to inform instruction and support student learning within and across academic content areas.

5.A Align assessment strategies with learning targets

5.B Use a variety of formative and summative assessments that measure student performance relative to learning targets

5.C Effectively use state, district, and/or classroom assessments

5.D Use assessments, including rubrics (teacher, student, or institution generated), to promote student understanding of quality work and to improve self-reflection, peer feedback, and goal setting

5.E Build student capacity to use assessment to evaluate progress toward learning targets, reflect on learning, and make appropriate learning decisions

5.F Analyze assessment results to determine impact on student learning and to adjust instruction to improve teaching and learning (positive impact)

5.F.1 Understand student cognition in order to perform accurate error analysis and alleviate student misunderstanding

5.G Modify assessment practices so that students with exceptional needs can demonstrate mastery of concepts in alternative ways