Definition of Terms:
Bi/multilingual: individuals who possess or are developing written and verbal skills in more than one language.
Culturally and linguistically diverse: identifying with a culture and/or language group that has been or is currently underserved in education or the community.
1 Knowledge of Language (and language competence)
1.A Candidates demonstrate a high level of oral and written language proficiency in
- English through meeting State certification requirements
An additional language of instruction as demonstrated by performance on a standardized assessment of language proficiency.
1.B Candidates demonstrate knowledge and pedagogical application of linguistic aspects of English and the additional language of instruction including;
- phonology (the sound system),
- morphology (word formation),
- syntax (phrase and sentence structure),
- semantics (meaning),
- pragmatics (context and function)
- discourse within and across contexts.
1.C Candidates can explain interrelationships and features of social, school/instructional, and academic discourses and pedagogical implications.
2 Development of Language and Literacy
Candidates demonstrate knowledge and application of concepts, theories, and research from applied linguistics, second language acquisition, and literacy development.
2.A Candidates demonstrate a high level of competence to teach literacy in English and the additional language(s) of instruction.
2.B Candidates know and understand how literacy development differs between both languages of instruction and apply appropriate instructional strategies to address the differences.
2.C Candidates understand language development and can describe the different stages of native language (L1) and additional language (L2) acquisition.
2.D Candidates know, understand, and apply Washington State’s approved English Language Proficiency (ELP) Standards and content standards for effective instruction of culturally and linguistically diverse learners.
2.E Candidates can explain the interrelationships between the language domains (i.e., listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing) and language modalities in ELP standards (i.e., receptive, productive and interactive).
2.F Candidates can explain how students’ L1 proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing transfers to and impacts L2 acquisition.
2.G Candidates can explain the interrelationship in the development of linguistic concepts and cognition when learning more than one language.
2.H Candidates demonstrate knowledge of developmentally appropriate methods and strategies for effective language instruction in English and the additional language(s) of instruction.
3 Culture and Equity:
Candidates know and understand the interrelationship between language and culture and its effects on learning.
3.A Teacher candidates of linguistically and culturally diverse learners are knowledgeable about the interrelationship between language and culture and its impacts on teaching and learning.
3.B Candidates can demonstrate knowledge and application of strategies which incorporate cultural and linguistic diversity to ensure equity in teaching and learning.
3.C Candidates understand the diversity of language learner populations (e.g., immigrant, migrant, refugee, and those born in the United States) and the impact of immigration status, socioeconomic status, race, religion, class, national origin, exceptionalities, sexual orientation, and gender on student learning.
3.D Candidates recognize and acknowledge the contributions of diverse cultural groups to our local, national, and global societies.
3.E Candidates recognize potential linguistic and cultural biases of pedagogies, curricula, and assessment instruments when determining classroom practices for language learners.
3.F Candidates can explain the complexities involved in cultural identity including the influences of:
- Cultural pluralism
- and the potential impact on student learning and identity development.
3.G Candidates are able to articulate the benefits of and need for an additive perspective of language and culture that supports bi/multicultural identity development.
3.H Candidates can explain how her/his own ethnicity, culture, and socioeconomic status influence teaching practices.
4 Professional Leadership & Advocacy:
A candidate understands her/his role as an advocate, a resource, and provides leadership within her/his school and communities.
4.A Candidates demonstrate knowledge of relevant historical and current legal and social issues concerning the education of culturally and linguistically diverse students in the State of Washington and the United States.
4.B Candidates know relevant state and federal policies related to bilingual education and how these apply to instructional programs.
4.C Candidates know how to serve as effective resources (e.g., instructional strategies, policy and outreach) for working with culturally and linguistically diverse learners and the importance of collaborating with other educational staff and community members.
4.D Candidates understand how to advocate for culturally and linguistically diverse learners within the local school and community contexts by challenging: misconceptions, arbitrary requirements, inappropriate curricular and assessment assumptions, cultural misunderstandings, and other factors that may impede language learners’ development and equitable access to opportunities.
4.E Candidates can distinguish between and communicate characteristics of typical language development and potential special education needs, including consideration of cultural influences on learning behaviors by referencing appropriate research and resources.
4.F Candidates can recognize characteristics of language learners who potentially qualify for highly capable programs, including consideration of cultural influences on learning behaviors.
4.G Candidates can explain the features, benefits, and challenges of various models including dual language (two-way and one-way), early and late exit bilingual programs, sheltered instruction, content-based instruction, push in, pull-out, and newcomer.
4.H Candidates can analyze how policies(e.g., discipline systems, ELL identification, programing, ELL placement, extracurricular eligibility) may impact the school experiences of language learners.
4.I Candidates collaborate with stakeholders (e.g., teachers, administrators, other educational staff, families, and community partners) to support and facilitate bi-lingual/literate development and overall academic success for language learners.
4.J Candidates advocate for culturally and linguistically diverse students and their families in multiple contexts within the school and communities.
5. Planning, Instruction and Assessment for Biliteracy
Planning, Instruction, and Assessment
5.A Candidates demonstrate a high level of oral and written language proficiency in languages of instruction and are competent to teach and assess in all language domains (listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing) in all languages of instruction.
5.B Candidates apply knowledge of linguistics (e.g., phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, discourse across contexts) to support language development in all language domains in instructional settings.
5.C Candidates construct and facilitate learning experiences that simultaneously develop language proficiencies as well as discipline-specific knowledge
5.D Candidate demonstrates ability to differentiate instruction and assessment in a variety of bilingual education models by applying concepts, theories, and research of educational linguistics, language acquisition, and literacy development.
5.E Candidates consistently engage in culturally responsive practices that empower students intellectually, socially, emotionally, and politically to develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes. These practices may include:
1. Use resources and assets available in schools (e.g., parent advisory committees, adult reading programs) and language learners’ cultural communities (e.g., online, local, and regional resources).
2. Acknowledge that parenting practices and participation in the education of a child vary among cultures and accommodate for this variance by developing diverse opportunities for parental outreach and integrating families within the school community.
3. Validate and incorporate home languages and cultures as educational assets
4. Facilitate/Bridge understanding of expectations and processes in the new culture to empower culturally and linguistically diverse learners to excel socially and academically.
5. Integrate knowledge of academic, social, and linguistic backgrounds of students to inform and enhance instructional practices.
6. Integrate funds of knowledge unique to bi/multilingual students to facilitate content understanding in languages of instruction.
7. Include multicultural perspectives and integrate culturally-relevant materials with depth and sensitivity in discipline- specific instruction.
8. Identify and integrate authentic materials from students’ cultures.
9. Design tasks and activities that facilitate students’ integration of native cultures and heritages in the classroom.
10. Actively seek ways of accessing students’ perspectives on instruction and unique issues facing bi/multilingual students.
5.F Candidates plan, differentiate, and use materials, for multiple language proficiency levels ensuring meaningful access to grade-level content for each student.
5.G Candidates plan and support language learners’ authentic engagement and interaction in a variety of bilingual learning settings (e.g., whole group, cooperative groups, and independent learning).
5.H Candidates apply knowledge of evidence-based research related to bilingual education to inform classroom practice.
5.I Candidates apply a range of teaching strategies, structures, and methods to support the development of higher level thinking skills at all levels of language proficiency.
5.J Candidates apply a range of teaching strategies, structures, and methods to elicit student voice (e.g., including reflection related to learning targets, metacognition strategies, and effective use of resources) and engagement at all levels of language proficiency.
5.K Candidates employ a variety of materials for language learning including books, visual aids, props, realia, software, internet, native language and technological resources to enhance language and content-area knowledge.
5.L Candidates develop instructional plans and assessments to support language development across language domains and within disciplines.
5.M Candidates consistently reflect upon and analyze the classroom, school, and community experiences of bi/multilingual students, and how such experiences influence the education of culturally and linguistically diverse populations.
5.N Candidates identify and describe bilingual principles, instruments, and methods of reliable and valid assessment related to the education of language learners.
5.O Candidates apply a variety of assessment tools and methods (e.g., formative, summative, and standardized) appropriate for bilingual education to inform instruction in all content areas, facilitate appropriate placement, and monitor language development and academic progress in all languages of instruction.
5.P Candidates recognize linguistic and cultural biases within assessment instruments (e.g., formative, summative, and standardized) and, when possible, implement appropriate modifications and accommodations.
5.Q Candidates appropriately use data from a variety of language proficiency instruments and discipline-specific assessments (e.g., formative, summative, and standardized) to inform instruction.
5.R Candidates apply knowledge of linguistic concepts to select and use appropriate instructional methods, strategies, and materials to support language learning of individual students in English and the second language of instruction.
5.S Candidates use a variety of approaches to deliver comprehensible instruction in English and the second language of instruction to support the development of the learner’s content knowledge and skills and their development of cognitive academic language in both languages.
5.T Candidates integrate language arts skills in each language of instruction and into all content areas.